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What is CNC Machining? 3 Axis | 4 Axis | 5 Axis

Views:3     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2021-05-14      Origin:Site

CNC Processing is a process in the manufacturing process, wherein the programmed computer software indicates the movement of plant machinery and tools. This application can be used to automate a series of manufacturing techniques such as milling, water jet cutting, and laser cutting materials. The instruction is fed into the CNC machine through the CAD file and converted to an exact order instruction set. The CNC machine uses these programming commands to automatically run without physical operators. Manufacturers have accumulated a variety of advantages through the application of CNC processing, such as cost reduction, improve speed, better accuracy and enhancement productivity.


The reference to the axis is used to describe the CNC machine operated along a plurality of axis points. The CNC processing is from the process of removing the material from the workpiece until the desired shape is configured. These machines have at least 3 shafts, along XYZ plane operation: X-axis (vertical), Y-axis (horizontal), and Z-axis (depth). The fourth axis represents the shaft (rotation around the x-axis), and the fifth axis represents the B shaft (rotated around the Y-axis).


The number of axes on the CNC machine determines the type of work it can do, which can be cut, and it can be manipulated. So what does this mean? A better interpretation of the difference between the 3 axis CNC router, 4 axis CNC machine and 5 axis CNC machines is provided.


3-axis CNC router machine

主图-02 IMG20170418154504

3 axis CNC machining means that the workpiece remains in the same position, while the cutting tool operates along the XYZ plane to trim the detachment material. This applies to components that do not require a lot of depths and details. 3 shaft processing is most commonly used for the production of mechanical components, the most suitable:


Automatic / interactive operation:

  • Milling groove

  • drilling

  • Cut sharp edge

4 axis ATC CNC router machine

主图-01 主图-02

4 axis machining means processing workpieces in the same manner as the 3-axis machine, but has additional rotational motion around the X-axis, the X axis being named axis. This rotation allows the workpiece to be cut around the B shaft. This method is beneficial when there is a need to perform a hole or incision on the side of the workpiece. Adding the fourth axis (axis) allows the workpiece to be automatically flipped, so the machine can remove the material from both sides. 4-axis machining is multifunction, available for:

  • Intermittent cut

  • Continuous cutting

  • Carving curved surface

5 axis CNC machining center

主图-01  02

5-axis machining means that the workpiece can automatically manipulate the 5th side at a time. In addition to the automatic movement along the X, Y and Z axes, the 5-axis CNC machine can also select two of three rotating shafts (A, B, C). The A, B and C axes are correspondingly rotated around X, Y, and Z axes. This mechanical processing is used in automotive, aerospace and rowing industries. Application is usually in favor of a very complex component, otherwise it will be necessary. 5 Axis machining requires a larger CNC programming time to adapt to complex rotational motion, but allow all five sides during one operation. 5-axis machining is beneficial when the component requires a lot of complexity and rapid accuracy. This includes:

  • Features accuracy

  • Increase productivity

  • Higher quality finish

  • Cutting complex detail

  • Processing complex shape

CNC machining has been proven to be in operation in manufacturing intensive industries. Some advantages include improving product quality control, standardization, and precision. The CAD technology is used to use CAD technology from the cutting and molding of the tuning components. The number of axes determine the type of motion that the CNC machine can perform.

Axis movement

X-axis - left turn

Y axis - front

Z axis - up and down

Rotating 180 ° around the axis - X-axis

B-axis - 180 ° rotation around Y-axis

C-axis - Z axis around 180 ° rotation

Type of CNC machine tool

3 axis - x, y and z axis

4 axis - x, y, z and shaft

5-axis - x, y and z-axis and two, B and C axes


Shandong iGolden CNC Technology Co., Ltd., is a solution supplier of CNC router machine application with key technology and independent intellectual property rights. The company integrates research and development with production, sales and after-sales. If you need a CNC machine, welcome to contact us!

Shandong iGolden CNC is a solution supplier of CNC application with key technology and independent intellectual property rights. 




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